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2/21/2011

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Weather

Range - Weather

Range - Red Flag Warnings / Alerts

Shasta Chain Control

Shingletown Cam is located on the north side of HWY 44 in Shingletown

Lassen Park Cam is located in Shasta County on the south side of eastbound HWY 44 at the Lassen Park North Entrance

Bogard Rest Area Cam is located in Lassen County on SR44 at the entrance to Bogard Rest Area

Long Distance Shooting Factors: wind, weather, The Beaufort Wind Scale, etc...

___________________________________________

Some Information about long distance shooting:

The World's Most Popular Hunting Round - 300 yard shooting with .22 lr.

... (from article)I later learned that with a 50-yard zero, a .22 LR slug dropped 128 inches at 300 yards. At 500 yards, the drop was more than 40 feet!

I was frankly skeptical until I started shooting. Resting the rifle on a Steady-Stix bipod, I was soon dropping prairie dogs with regularity at 200, then 300 and 350 yards. I didn’t hit with the first shot every time, but the low-recoiling autoloader let me see the puff of each bullet strike. It was a simple matter to “walk” succeeding bullets into the target. Even at 350 yards, it seldom took more than three or four rounds to make a kill. It doesn’t take much punch to put a p-dog down for keeps, and the little 40-grain bullets proved adequate for the task.

For benefits of 100 yard shooting with .22 lr see: SHOOTING TECHNIQUES AND TACTICS QUESTIONS ... Q: Dear Sirs, This question may have been asked before and if so, I apologize, but do you have any tips or practice techniques for learning long range windage reading and corrections--WITHOUT actually having a 600 yard range to shoot on? Is shooting a .22 LR at 100 yards/meters a viable alternative? I just do not have any opportunity to shoot at 600 yards on a regular basis. Any suggestions would be appreciated.

Thank you.
Regards,
Troy H.

A:
Mr. H. You hit the nail on the head with your question about smallbore shooting at 100 yards. The 10 and X rings of the American smallbore prone and the 600 yd. highpower targets have the same minutes of angle dimensions. Also, the wind will affect smallbore bullets at 100 yards and highpower bullets at 600 yards in a similar manner. So, the training you get in the wind at 100 yards with a .22 will help you a great deal. As with any aspect of shooting, the more time you can put in on the range the better you will become. Good luck with your shooting.

SFC Lance Hopper

_________________________________________

Reticle booklet

-----------------------------------------

A .22 LR Ballistics Chart - out to 300 yards

 

Precision Shooting   (Tech Tips) (larrywillis.com)

       Shooting &ReloadingTech Tips

      .22 Rimfire Ammunition    Trajectory Windage Effect

                                     See information at --->   .22 Rimfire Ammunition (below information is from that link)

Trajectory

      This table shows (From www.larrywillis.com) the bullet drop of Standard .22 rimfire ammunition compared to High Velocity ammo.   This information is pretty accurate, but it can vary slightly.   It depends on the particular brand of ammo that you're using.   Most .22 rimfire bullets "appear" to be almost identical.   However, some ammunition manufacturers use bullets with a very slight difference in shape.   Even at the exact same speed, their ballistic coefficient gives them a slightly different trajectory.

  (Zeroed at 50 yds) 25 yds 50 yds 75 yds 100 yds
.22 Rimfire   (Standard)
  • 40 gr. Bullet
  • 1050 fps
- 0 - - 0 - - 2.25" - 7.0"
.22 Rimfire   (High Speed)
  • 40 gr. Bullet
  • 1260 fps
+ .25" - 0 - - 1.5" - 4.75"


Windage Effect

      The chart below shows how much effect that a 10 MPH wind has on different .22 rimfire bullets.   You would think that the High Speed ammo would be affected less by the wind, but that is not correct.   Most brands of standard velocity .22 rimfire ammo will do a much better job at bucking the wind.  

  (With 10 MPH crosswind) 25 yds 50 yds 75 yds 100 yds
.22 Rimfire   (Standard)
  • 40 gr. Bullet
  • 1050 fps
.25" 1.0" 2.25" 4.0"
.22 Rimfire   (High Speed)
  • 40 gr. Bullet
  • 1260 fps
.25" 1.0" 2.50" 5.25"


The effect of canting your scope

      If you're searching for accuracy, this is an important item to remember.   If you tilt your scope when shooting, your shot will land to one side of where your scope is pointed.   For example . . . . if your scope is tilted to the right by a few degrees (this is easy if you don't have a horizontal or vertical reference), your bullet will cross the line of sight (at about 30 yards), and go about 1/4" to the right at 50 yards. (end).

 

WIND:

Wind flags

Outdoor shooting ranges sometimes have wind flags, positioned between the firing line (where the shooters are) and the targets. Shooters observe these flags to make an estimate of wind speed, which is then converted into lateral minute of arc point of aim corrections or, alternatively, windage holdoff corrections.

The flag method is the most common method used to estimate wind speed. A flag blowing in the wind will naturally blow away from the flagpole, with the angle of the bottom of the flag to the flagpole increasing with increasing windspeed. To estimate the wind speed in mph, the angle in degrees between the bottom of the flag to the flagpole at the mid-range position between the shooter and the target is divided by 4. For example, an angle of 60 degrees between the bottom of a flag and a flagpole would be estimated as a 15 miles per hour (24 km/h) windspeed. [1]

The clock method is then used to determine full value, half value, or no value corrections in minute of angle for this wind. Aligning the target at the 12 o' clock position or direction, with the 6 o' clock direction being directly behind the shooter, winds at 3 or 9 o'clock are equated to full value, winds at 1,2,4,5,7,8,10,11 o'clock are equated to half value, and winds at 12 and 6 o'clock are equated to no value.[2]

The minute of angle correction (full value) is then commonly estimated as ((Range meters/ 100) times Wind mph) / C, where C is a constant. The constant C equals 15 for ranges from 100 to 500 meters, 14 for 600 meters, 13 for 700-800 meters, 12 for 900 meters, and 11 for 1000 meters. [3] For full value winds, this full windage correction is used. For half value winds, the minute of correction in windage given by this formula is halved; for no value winds, no minute of angle correction in windage is required.[4]

Multiple flags are required for two reasons. First, the wind speed closest to the mid-point of range has the greatest effect on the projectile. [5] In addition, the wind at one part of the range will not always be the same at another part.

Wind flags are not always actual flags, sometimes streamers are used, small triangle flags, or even pin wheels. Factors such as the range length and expected strength of the wind determine the best type of flag to use. When no flags are available, a small leaf or other small light object can be dropped from shoulder height, and the object is then pointed at by the shooter; the angle between his arm and his torso can provide an equivalent wind speed estimation as a wind flag, although it will not be at the mid-range location along the bullet's trajectory. [6]

Another article on wind speed:

Wind flags

Wind flags are placed on the range between the shooter and the target, and allow a skilled shooter to judge the amount of correction that needs to be made to hit the target. Flags can be home built[1] or purchased. They generally consist of a wind vane to indicate wind direction, and a cloth or plastic streamer to indicate wind speed (the higher the wind, the greater the angle of the streamer). Multiple flags are usually used, and they are placed at intervals along the path of the bullet from rifle to target. Commercial wind flags may also have a propellor to help judge the wind at higher speeds.

http://www.lasc.us/RangingShotNoWind

MIRAGE

Golf Flags

Long Range

Reading the Wind - Tips for Highpower, Service Rifle, and Long Range Shooting

Reading the Wind (Part 2, 600 Yard Firing)

Wind Swag

The USAMU Service Rifle Team fields questions pertaining to a variety of Service Rifle Shooting topics such as Equipment and Ammunition, Shooting Positions and Shooting Techniques and Tactics. Go to the USAMU Shooting Tips Page to view the latest questions and answers.

Scope (Tasco) (review)

22 Long Rifle Wind Drift: Cross Wind

1931 Service Rifle Pamphlet:

The basics of reading the wind still apply at the 600-yard line. Shortly after arriving at the ready line, you should determine the speed, direction and value of the wind. The first task, determining wind speed, has seen competitors arrive at the firing line toting the latest in meteorological marvels. I submit that the human eye and well-trained powers of observation are the equal of any overpriced anemometer (a fancy word for a “wind meter”). The following list of the effects of the wind and their corresponding velocity can be found in the 1931 Service Rifle Pamphlet produced by the US Army Infantry Team. The information is as relevant now as it was then. (Source: USAMU):

0-3 mph: Wind hardly felt, but smoke drifts
3-5 mph: Wind felt lightly on the face
5-8 mph: Leaves are kept in constant movement
8-12 mph: Raises dust and loose paper
12-15 mph: Causes small trees to sway

USING FLAGS TO ESTIMATE THE WIND SPEED

 

The Beaufort Wind Scale
 
Force Speed mph Describe Effect
0 1 Calm Smoke straight up
1 3 Light breeze Smoke slightly bent
2 7 Light air Leaves rustle
3 11 Gentle breeze Leaves move
4 19 Moderatebreeze Small branches move
5 24 Fresh breeze Small trees sway
6 31 Strong breeze Large branches move
7 38 Moderate gale Whole trees move
8 46 Fresh gale Twigs break off
9 54  Strong Gale Roofs damged
10 63 Gale Trees uprooted
11 73 Storm Widespread damage
12 74+ Hurricane Widespread destruction

=====

Source of below: http://www.kitepower.com/beaufort.html

Beaufort*

Avg miles
per hour

Avg km
per hour

Knots

Surroundings

0
(calm)

 0 0 0-1 Smoke rises vertically and the see is mirror smooth

1
(light air)

1.2-3

2-5

1-3

Smokes moves slightly with breeze and  shows direction of wind

2
(light breeze)

3.7 – 7.5

6 – 12

4-6

You can feel wind on your face and hear the leaves start to rustle

3
(gentle breeze)

8 – 12.5

13 – 20

7-10 Smoke will move horizontally and small branches start to sway. Wind extends a light flag

4
(moderate breeze)

13 – 18.6

21 – 30

11-16 Loose dust or sand on the ground will move and larger branches will sway, loose paper blows around, and fairly frequent whitecaps occur

5
(fresh breeze)

19.3 - 25

31 – 40

17-21 Surface waves form on water and small trees sway

6
(strong breeze)

25.5 - 31

41 - 50

22-27 Trees begin to bend with the force of the wind and causes whistling in telephone wires and some spray on the sea surface

7
(moderate gale)

32 - 38

51-61 28-33 large trees sway

8
(fresh gale)
 

39 - 46

62-74 34-40 twigs break from trees, and long streaks of foam appear on the ocean

9
(strong gale)

47 - 55

75-89 41-47 branches break from trees

10
(whole gale) 

56 - 64

90-103 48-55 trees are uprooted, and the sea takes on a white appearance

11
(storm)

65 - 74

104-119 56-63 widespread damage

12 (hurricane)

75+

120+

64 +

structural damage on land and storm waves at sea

======

Beaufort Wind Scale

Source of following: http://www.redwitch.com/extras/beaufort_wind_scale.aspx

Lassensharpshooters additions to table: Photos of Flags were incorporated directly into the table, i.e., added); Winds speeds in km/hr and  knots were deleted.

Also, the 1931 Service Rifle Pamphlet summary was added to the column "MPH" as follows:

0-3 mph: Wind hardly felt, but smoke drifts
3-5 mph: Wind felt lightly on the face
5-8 mph: Leaves are kept in constant movement
8-12 mph: Raises dust and loose paper
12-15 mph: Causes small trees to sway

The best known scale for wind speed is that of Sir Francis Beaufort (1774–1857), an admiral in the British navy who drew up the first version in 1806. The Beaufort scale was adopted by the admiralty in 1838 and by the International Meteorological Committee in 1874. Beaufort's original scale (from 1 to 12) was made for use in the open sea and was based upon the amount of sail a man-of-war could carry (Force 12 was a wind “no canvas could withstand”). With the passing of military sail, later revisions focused on other phenomena observable in the open sea and added correlated wind speeds.

By studding this scale and observing water, you can estimate the winds speed with great accuracy.

Beaufort Number
or Force

Wind Speed

Description Effects Land / Sea
Flag

mph

0 <1 Calm Still, calm air, smoke will rise vertically.

Water is mirror-like.

1

 

Flag at Beaufort 1
1 Bft
1-3
mph

0-3 mph: Wind hardly felt, but smoke drifts

Light Air Rising smoke drifts, wind vane is inactive.

Small ripples appear on water surface.

2 Flag at Beaufort 2
2 Bft

3-5 mph: Wind felt lightly on the face

4-7
mph


5-8 mph: Leaves are kept in constant movement

Light Breeze Leaves rustle, can feel wind on your face, wind vanes begin to move.

Small wavelets develop, crests are glassy.

3 Flag at Beaufort 3
3 Bft
8-12
mph

8-12 mph: Raises dust and loose paper

 
Gentle Breeze Leaves and small twigs move, light weight flags extend.

Large wavelets, crests start to break, some whitecaps.

4 13-18
mph

12-15 mph: Causes small trees to sway

Moderate Breeze Small branches move, raises dust, leaves and paper.

Small waves develop, becoming longer, whitecaps.

5 19-24
mph
Fresh Breeze Small trees sway.

White crested wavelets (whitecaps) form, some spray.

6 25-31
mph
Strong Breeze Large tree branches move,  telephone wires begin to "whistle", umbrellas are difficult to keep under control.

Larger waves form, whitecaps prevalent, spray.

7 32-38
mph
Moderate or Near Gale Large trees sway, becoming difficult to walk.

Larger waves develop, white foam from breaking waves begins to be blown.

8 39-46
mph
Gale or Fresh Gale Twigs and small branches are broken from trees, walking is difficult.

Moderately large waves with blown foam.

9 47-54
mph
Strong Gale Slight damage occurs to buildings, shingles are blown off of roofs.

High waves (6 meters), rolling seas, dense foam, Blowing spray reduces visibility.

10 55-63
mph
Whole Gale or Storm Trees are broken or uprooted, building damage is considerable.

Large waves (6-9 meters), overhanging crests, sea becomes white with foam, heavy rolling, reduced visibility.

11 64-72
mph
Violent Storm Extensive widespread damage.

Large waves (9-14 meters), white foam, visibility further reduced.

12 73+
mph

 

Hurricane

 

Extreme destruction, devastation. Large waves over 14 meters, air filled with foam, sea white with foam and driving spray, little visibility.
USING FLAGS TO ESTIMATE THE WIND SPEED - table immediately above

You can use a ordinary flag to give you a good indication of the wind speed. Take a look a the table .

Bft = Beaufort Scale Wind Speed

0 Bft - I assume you can guess what this looks like.

1 Bft - the flag only occasionally flips open, the outer end hangs lower.

2 Bft - the flag is mostly extended, the waves are deep, a large portion of the outer top corner flips back and forth.

3 Bft - the flag is completely extended, the waves are faster and smaller than 2 Bft.

4 Bft and Up - the flag is still completely extended, the waves are faster than 3 Bft. The changes from 4 Bft. and up are more subtile and harder to distinguish from each other, but this is of little concern since the choice is not what kite to fly, but whether to fly a kite at all.

Flag at Beaufort 1
1 Bft
Flag at Beaufort 2
2 Bft
Flag at Beaufort 3
3 Bft

These flags are 5 ft. by 7 ft. (1.5m by 2m) but size makes little difference.

(If you are using Internet Explorer and have javascript disabled then the flag animations are about 3/4 normal speed. Netscape plays the animations at normal speed with or without javascript enabled.)

End of information from Source of following: http://www.redwitch.com/extras/beaufort_wind_scale.aspx

======

 

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Quoted from Joseph Story* in, “Commentaries on the Constitution” (1833). 

* Former Associate Justice of U.S. Supreme Court

 

 

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Quoted from: Silveira v. Lockyer - Dissent by: Judge Kozinski.

 

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